The normal stomach has folds and undulations known as rugal folds as seen in this picture. Identifying normal from abnormal appearing tissue is an important part of the internist's job and helps determine where to obtain biopsies.
This photo of a small intestine shows a very irregular and lumpy mucosa from a cat that was losing weight and vomiting. Biopsies revealed a common type of intestinal cancer known as lymphoma. The cat responded well to chemotheraphy and is still alive, 6 months after diagnosis.
In this dog’s stomach you see pinpoint and streaky bleeding in the mucous membrane of the stomach. Biopsies were obtained which revealed inflammatory bowel disease.
This raised, red, ulcerated tumor is present in the stomach and was associated with vomiting and weight loss in a dog. Endoscopic biopsies allowed determination of what type of cancer it was so treatment options and prognosis information could be provided to the pet owner.
Endoscopy is an excellent tool for removing foreign material that has been ingested and which is still in the esophagus or stomach. Here you see a large fishhook in the stomach. This was carefully removed via the mouth thus avoiding abdominal surgery. The dog was discharged within hours of the procedure being performed.
This cat ingested a rubber hair tie that became lodged between the stomach and the first part of the intestine. Using the endoscope, the hair tie was easily grasped and removed through the mouth.
The esophageal stricture (narrowing), far left, was making it impossible for this dog to swallow food. Regurgitation and weight loss resulted. Using a special balloon dilator, the scar tissue associated with the stricture is broken down and the area opened up. Within 24 hours, the dog could eat normally.
This picture is from the duodenum (small intestine) of a cat. The normally smooth, pink appearance of the intestinal lining has a lumpy and inflamed appearance. Biopsies revealed a condition known as inflammatory bowel disease.
Bronchoscopy: This image is taken from the trachea just above where the trachea branches into the mainstem bronchi for the left and right lung lobes. Bronchoscopy is often used to determine the extent of tracheal collapses and to obtain samples from the lower airways for analysis.